Introduction to Molecular Biology & Genetics

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  • UniversityUniversity of Sydney
  • AreaScience and technology
  • CourseMBLG1001 - introduction of molecular biology and genetics
  • Course CodeMBLG1001
  • ProfessorDr Dale Hancock
0 Purchases
79%Verified Grade
  • Authorjt1993
  • Created2013
  • Pages157
  • Approved16 June 2015

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About these notes

1. Introduction to MBLG
– Central Dogma
– DNA Replication
– Transcription
– Translation
– Unique properties of Carbon
– Biopolymers
– Fats
– Carbohydrates
– Nucleic Acids & Proteins
– DNA vs RNA
– Amino Acid Structure / Groups / Charges
– Peptide bond formation reaction
– Chirality
– pKa, pH, pI
– Buffers
– Protein Folding (forces) / Hierarchy
– Alpha Helix / Beta Sheet
– Tertiary Structures
– Protein Structure and Thermodynamics
– DNA Binding Proteins (sequence independent/dependent)
– Enzyme overview
– Thermodynamics vs Kinetics

2. Enzymes as Biological Catalysts
– kinetics (rate of reaction)
– simple first order reaction
– Michaelis and Menten Theory
– Km, Kcat, Vmax

3. Introduction to Nucleic Acids
– History; identification of DNA as the genetic material
– Structure of DNA
– Chargaff’s rules / Watson and Crick Model
– the Sugar / the Bases
– Forces maintaining the Double Helix
– Base Stacking
– Hydrogen Bonding
– Ionic/electrostatic interactions
– Major/minor grooves

4. Nucleic Acid Properties
– Physical and Chemical properties of DNA
– UV absorption
– Detecting DNA by fluorescence
– Hyper-chromic Effect
– Disrupting the DNA double helix
– Promoting base pairing; renaturation, hybridisation

5. Replication
– DNA polymerase
– “semi conservative”
– direction of replication
– addition via nucleophilic attack
– E.coli replication (cellular)
– Prokaryotic enzymes (DNA polymerase I, DNA pol II, Helicase, SSBP, Primase, Klenow, Reverse Transcriptase, Taq polymerase, Topoisomerases I & II, Ligases)
– bi-directional replication (leading and lagging strand)

6. Transcription
– expression
– genotype and phenotype
– template and coding strands
– prokaryotic vs eukaryotic transcription
– DNA transcription vs replication
– start site & promoter region
– UP element
– structure of RNA polymerase
– Initiation (transcription bubble)
– Elongation (mRNA)
– Termination (rho-independent and dependent)

7. Regulation of Prokaryotic Transcription
– Differential Gene Expression
– Local Sequences
– Global Regulators
– Activators (CAP)
– Repressors
– Ligans
– Effect of different combinations at promoter region
– Lac operon
– Trp Operon
– Special sigmas

8. Translation
– codons
– the genetic code (overlapping, non overlapping)
– degeneracy of genetic code
– process of translation
– tRNA
– ribosomes
– Initiation / elongation / termination
– loading proteins onto tRNA
– specificity of charging
– amino-acyl tRNA synthetase
– peptide bond formation
– “wobble”
– Efficiency of Translation (multitasking, reading frames, redundancy, spare codons)

9. Comparisons with Eukaryotic Gene Expression
– eukaryotic cell structure
– key eukaryotic features
– eukaryotic transcription
– eukaryotic promoters
– post transcription (mRNA processing – capping, tailing, splicing)
– eukaryotic translation vs prokaryotic

10. Applying Molecular Biology
– Electricality
– Complimentarity
– Southern Blotting
– Degeneracy
– Universality
– Enzymes/proteins in vitro
– Organisms – E.coli, bacteriophage

11. Cloning
– recombinant DNA technology
– DNA extraction
– restriction endonucleases
– sticky and blunt ends
– klenow fragment
– polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
– vectors
– ligating DNA into a plasmid
– transformation
– plasmid replication in the host
– inefficiency of transformation
– selecting for transformants
– selecting for recombinants
– cloning libraries
– genome vs transcriptome
– genomic libraries
– cDNA libraries

12. Gene Discovery
– screening libraries
– forward genetics
– reverse genetics

13. Applied Molecular Biology
– e.g. EPO (erythropoeitin)

 

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